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Lesson: Learn about Diet with Pep Guardiola

Discover the wholesome and healthy foods that are vital to the balanced diets of professional footballers.

Learn about Diet with Manchester City's Pep Guardiola
Lesson
Revision Notes

Pep Guardiola, Manchester City’s famous Spanish manager, is one of the most successful and innovative coaches in the history of the game. When he went to the Etihad in 2016, he made significant changes to the dietary habits of Manchester City’s players.

Guardiola is a passionate believer in intense training sessions supported by strict dietary rules, which are overseen by the club’s chefs and nutritionists.

Work out how to achieve a balanced diet with wholesome foods and live a healthy and happy life.

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Test: Diet

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Pep Guardiola

Josep ‘Pep’ Guardiola Sala was born on January 18th, 1971. He is one of the most admired coaches in the modern game, and widely acknowledged as one of the all-time great managers. He holds the record for the most consecutive league games won in La Liga (Spain – with Barcelona), the Bundesliga (Germany – with Bayern Munich) and the Premier League (England – with Manchester City).

He was an outstanding midfield player, mainly at Barcelona, where he won four successive league titles and was part of Johan Cruyff’s ‘Dream Team’ that won the European Cup in 1992. He also played in Italy and Qatar. He was capped 47 times for Spain and appeared at the 1994 FIFA World Cup. He also played friendly matches for his beloved Catalonia.

Guardiola became the coach of Barcelona in 2008, where in just four seasons he won 14 trophies. After taking a sabbatical in New York, he took over at Bayern Munich in 2013, where he won the league title three times and twice won the domestic double.

He left Bayern for Manchester City in 2016 and took them to a Premier League title in his second season, winning 100 league points, the first time that had been achieved. He won a second consecutive Premier League and the League Cup the following season, becoming the first manager to win the domestic treble in English men's football.

Ederson

Ederson Santana de Moraes,  born on August 127th, 1993, and known simply as Ederson plays as a goalkeeper for Premier League club Manchester City and for Brazil.

Widely acknowledged as one of the world’s best goalkeepers, he is particularly well known as a ‘sweeper-keeper’. He is not only a great shot-stopper but can play out from the back with both feet and able to spray passes around the field like an accomplished midfield player.

Diet

All organisms require food to survive and flourish. Food is a source of energy and the raw material of growth. Good nutrition requires a balance between several different food types. A balanced diet needs the correct amounts of each of these types of food molecules.

  • Carbohydrates are a source of energy. Examples of carbohydrate foods are pasta, potatoes, and rice.
  • Fats are needed to insulate our bodies and to help our cells. Examples are cheese, butter, and oils.
  • Proteins are needed for growth and tissue repair. Examples are meat, fish, eggs, and cheese.
  • Fibre is important because it allows the muscles in our intestines to work properly (called peristalsis). Fibre is found in bread, fruit, and vegetables.
  • There are different minerals, like iron, which can come from red meat, nuts, or beans, and keeps our blood heathy.
  • There are several different vitamins, like vitamin C which we get from citrus fruit and leafy greens. Vitamin C protects our cells and supports our skin, bones, and blood vessels.
  • Hydration is vital to the effective functioning of the body, as all chemical reactions take place in water.

The exact amount of each of the above that is needed in a balanced diet will vary. For example, teenagers need a high-protein diet to supply the raw materials for growth. A simple formula to find the recommended daily average (RDA) protein intake for a person using the formula: RDA in g = 0.75 × body mass in kg.

Some people’s diet may be influenced by other factors than just their daily requirements. They may be vegetarians or vegans and some religions require certain diets to be followed. Also, some people may have to avoid certain foods to prevent them becoming ill, for example, nut allergies.

Food Tests

Protein can be tested using the Biuret test. This involves adding the piece of food to a copper sulphate solution with a little sodium hydroxide added. The light blue colour changes to purple if proteins are present.

Fat can be seen to be present in food if a white emulsion (tiny droplets of fat in water) is made after mixing the food with water and ethanol. This is called the alcohol emulsion test.

Carbohydrates come either as starch or sugars. If you add a few drops of iodine to food, it will go blue/black if starch is present.

Underweight / Overweight

Reaching and keeping a healthy weight is important for overall health and can help you prevent and control many diseases and conditions. If you are overweight or obese, you are at higher risk of developing serious health problems, including heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems, and certain cancers. That is why maintaining a healthy weight is so important: It helps you lower your risk for developing these problems, helps you feel good about yourself, and gives you more energy to enjoy life. 

Overweight is having extra body weight from muscle, bone, fat, and/or water.

Obesity is having a high amount of extra body fat. Body mass index (BMI) is a useful measure of overweight and obesity.

Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight in a formula. To find a BMI, divide an adult's weight in kilograms by their height in metres squared.

BMI Categories

  • Underweight = <18.5
  • Normal weight = 18.5–24.9
  • Overweight = 25–29.9
  • Obesity = BMI of 30 or greater

There are several variables that influence our weight and so our BMI: our environment (climate for example), family history and genetics, metabolism (the way our bodies changes food and oxygen into energy) and our behaviour and habits.

Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The amount of energy or calories you get from food and drinks (energy IN) is balanced with the energy your body uses for things like breathing, digesting, and being physically active (energy OUT):

The same amount of energy IN and energy OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance): More energy IN than OUT over time = weight gain; more energy OUT than IN over time = weight loss.

You can reach and maintain a healthy weight if you: follow a healthy diet, are physically active, and limit the time you spend being physically inactive.

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